Den Artikel Riding toward the civil Society – Bicycle in Nineteenth-Century Estonia von Mikko Kylliäinen fand ich bei der Spurensuche zu Estischen Radfahrervereinen ausgehend vom grandiosen Touren-Buch von Estland mit Fortführung der Touren bis in die Städte Nord-Livlands von 1897, in dem nicht nur damalige (Dorf-)Krüge und die Bierbars entlang der Wegstrecke, sondern auch der umfangreichste (mir bekannte) Anzeigenteil eines historischen Tourenbuchs für Radfahrer, zu finden sind. Riding toward the civil Society kann fast schon als Leitgedanke für das Baltikum, die Nachbarländer, Europa etc. dienen. Mikko Kylliäinens Abstract:
The diffusion of the predecessor of the modern bicycle, the velocipede, started in Europe at the end of the 1860s. Around this time the velocipede also arrived in the area populated by Estonians, at the same time as in the neighboring Finland. The popularity of the bicycle started to grow in the 1880s, when the Baltic Germans first started to found bicycle clubs. In Estonia and northern Livonia, the Baltic Germans had the best possible means of acquiring a manufactured bicycle from abroad. However, this was not the only example of cycling culture in the governments of Livonia and Estonia; also the ordinary people had been interested in cycling since the 1880s. Estonians started to form their bicycle clubs in the 1890s, when the sales of bicycles were growing all over the world. Perhaps, the foundation of bicycle clubs can be partly explained also by the political situation in Estonia and Livonia and the national awakening of the Estonians. Similarly to other types of clubs, the bicycle clubs also offered people a chance to discuss social matters and politics. Thus, the civil society was partly built in bicycle clubs, too.
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